Type 2 Diabetic Complications and Maintenance

Once a patient has been diagnosed with diabetes due to elevated blood sugar levels and a deficiency of insulin production these patients need to be monitored as acute and chronic complications could arise due to an abnormal low blood sugar level due to either too much insulin or medication taken for lowering the glucose levels.

However insulin is vital to patients suffering from Type 1 diabetes as they cannot survive without exogenous insulin and will develop elevated blood sugar levels as well as increased urine glucose which will lead to loss of fluid and electrolytes. The lack of insulin causes the inability to store protein and fat and the breakdown of protein and fat stores and results in what is known as diabetic ketoacidosis which can cause shock and then the patient goes into a coma and can die.

For proper function of the brain cells blood glucose is essential and low blood sugars can lead to CNS complications such as dizziness, confusion, tremors and weakness. If the patient is does not receive treatment immediately this will lead to seizures and irreversible brain death.

In the case of chronic complications which are related to small and large blood vessel disease involves the kidneys, nerves and eyes as well as circulation. Eye complications are common and are known as diabetic retinopathy and usually occur after five or six years as the diseased small blood vessels at the back of the eye leak protein and blood into the retina. This leads to scarring of the retina as well as retinal detachment in turn impairs the vision.

Poorly controlled diabetic patients can also develop glaucoma and cataracts. Other chronic complications such as kidney nephropathy which is caused by leakage of protein into the kidneys and urine and this could result in kidney failure and the patient having to have renal dialysis or in severe cases a kidney transplant. In addition diabetic suffer from nerve damage whereby the blood flow to the nerves is limited and the symptoms of nerve damage includes burning, aching and numbness of the feet and lower extremities.

When this occurs a patient will experience loss of sensation in the feet and his should be treated immediately as minor injuries could lead to ulceration which seldom heals and gangrene usually sets in which leads to surgical amputations of the toes and feet and in some instances the whole limb.


One Response to “Type 2 Diabetic Complications and Maintenance”

  1. […] caught my eye but shocked me because we all know the importance of insulin to a diabetic is “quality of life or life threatening consequences.”  Withholding Insulin for Weight Loss By Rosemary Black, Reviewed by […]

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